Sunday, November 16, 2014

Murakami Castle -Northern fortress-

Murakami Castle

-Northern fortress-


村上城



Overview


Name: Murakami castle (Murakami-jyo)
Alias: Honjyo castle
Place: Honmachi Murakami city, Niigata
Type: Mountain Castle
Built: 16th century
Remaining remnants: Stone walls, clay walls and moats 
Title:

Brief History


Murakami castle (村上城) is located at Gagyusan mountain, an independent one of 135 meter height at the center of Murakami city. Murakami area places at the mouth of Miomotegawa river, and is the north edge of Niigata plain. It is 200 kilometer distant from Jyoetsu area, the center of Echigo country (Niigata prefecture) in medieval era, and also it was necessary to pass 50 kilometer mountainous road to Shonai region, the northwestern part of Dewa country (western part of Yamagata prefecture), or to Yonezawa basin (south part of Yamagata prefecture). Due to its remoteness from Jyoetsu area and secureness, Murakami castle had been an important border fortress.

Semi independent lords at Northern Echigo country


Precise year is unknown but Murakami castle was built by Honjyo clan as their residence, and originally named as Honjyo castle. Honjyo clan was originally stem from descendant of Taira clan at Chichibu area (Saitama prefecture), and moved to Echigo country in 13th century. Honjyo clan was the main stream of this house but there were other powerful branch families such as Irobe clan at Hirabayashi castle or Ayukawa clan. Along with other clans such as Nakajyo clan, Kurokawa clan or Shibata clan, they kept independence at north half of Echigo country and were collectively called as “Agakitashu”.

Especially as Murakami clan was located at the north edge of Echigo country, they related surrounding powers of Shonai area or Yonezawa area. Honjyo clan had a relationship with Daihoji clan, a local lord at Shonai region, and they also opposed the plan that Sadazane Uesugi (1479-1550), the governor of Echigo country, adopted his successor from Date clan, a warlord of Yonezawa basin. But in the former half of 16th century, the power of Honjyo clan decreased by internal conflict.


Braveness and rebellion


At the middle of 16th century, Shigenaga Honjyo (1540-1614) became the leader of Honjyo clan. Shigenaga united Honjyo clan again. At the same time Kenshin Uesugi (1530-1578), the leader of Nagao clan which was the house of deputy governor of Echigo country, united south half of Echigou country and made pressure to north area. At first Shigenaga resisted to Kenshin, but finally subordinated to Shingen with other lord such as Irobe clan or Nakajyo clan, and worked for Kenshin.

Shigenaga bravely fought at many battles and made achievement, then he became famous as a brave general under Kenshin. At the battle of Kawanakajima against Shingen Takeda (152101573) in 1560, it is said that Shigenaga charged into Takeda army wielding the sword and made achievement. In 1563, during the campaign to Kanto region against Hojyo clan, Shigenaga captured Sano castle (Tochigi prefecture) and was appointed as a commander. When generals celebrated Kenshin in 1559, Shigenaga was recorded as the second position among retainers.

But on the other hand, due to its braveness and pride Shigenaga sometimes revolted to Kenshin. In 1568, Shigenaga suddenly revolted to Kenshin at Honjyo castle. Shigenaga was originally dissatisfied by small reward compared with his achievement, and seeing that Shingen Takeda (1521-1573), the warlord of Kai country (Yamanashi prefecture) and rival of Kenshin, urged rebellion. Furious Kenshin siege Honjyo castle, but due to its security Kenshin could not fall it. However Shingen did not help Shigenaga and he also lost supply line, thus finally Shigenaga surrendered to Kenshin again under coordination of Ashina clan, the warlord of Aizu region, next year. 10 years later Shigenaga revolted to Kenshin again under the support of central ruler Nobunaga Oda (1534-1582), but Kenshin suppress it and forgave him again. 


Veteran general supported Uesugi clan


After the death of Kenshin in 1578, Shigenaga turned to support Kenshin's successor Kagekatsu Uesugi (1556-1623) as a veteran general. In 1588, Shigenaga defeated Mogami army at the battle of Jyugorihara which Daihouji clan and captured Shonai area, and recovered Shonai area as a territory of Uesugi clan. But in 1598, Kagekatsu Uesugi was transferred to Aizu Wakamatsu castle (Fukushima prefecture) by Toyotomi government, and Shigenega also moved to Aizu region.

After the death of ruler Hideyoshi Toyotomi in 1598, Kagekatsu Uopposed to the largest lord Ieyasu Tokugawa (1543-1616), and started his campaign aiming at the hegemony of Tohoku region against Masamune Date (1567-1636) and Yoshiaki Mogami (1544-1614) both supported Ieyasu in 1600. Among whole Uesugi army attacked Mogami army, Masamune Date advanced to Uesugi territory and captured Shirakawa castle. Next Date army sieged Fukushima castle protected by Shigenaga, but with small soldiers Shigenaga firmly kept Fukushima castle. 

Further, once Ieyasu Tokugawa made a victory against Mitsunari Ishida (1560-1600), former chief magistrate of Toyotomi government, at the decisive battle of Sekihara, Shigenaga persuaded Kagekatsu to subordinate to Ieyasu and negotiated with Edo Shogunate by himself. As a result, even thouth territory was decreased Uesugi clan could survive as a feudal lord under Edo Shogunate.


Structure of Murakami castle


After the movement of Uesugi clan, Murakami clan became the commander of Honjyo castle and renamed it to Murakami castle. Murakami clan reformed Murakami castle into a modern one equipped stone walls, but was extinguished in 1618. Next Hori clan moved from Fukushima castle (Jyoetsu city), but Hori clan also could not stay long. Subsequent to both clan, relative or hereditary retainer of Edo Shogunate served as a commander of Murakami castle. Especially in 1649 Matsudaira clan, a descendant of Ieyasu’s second son Hideyasu Yuki, became the lord of Murakami domain with large territory. Matsudaira clan expanded Murakami castle suitable to their position and territory.

Gagyusan mountain is a long and narrow mountain spread north and south direction, and main areas of the castle spread along this long ridge. Central area is located at the top of the mountain, and at the southwest corner there was a three story main tower at the basement but this main tower was lost by fire. At the north of central area there was a beak shaped terrace utilizing terrain shape, and long and narrow secondary area runs down to the front gate. The stone wall of central area is winding in line with original terrain, and had a beautiful shape like a Great Wall in china. 

Main gate and main entrance into central area were magnificent Masugata gate, a secure complex style gate. At the north of main gate there is the saddle of the ridge, and this point is used as a crossing point of hilltop areas and climbing road from hillside area. Ahead of this crossing point there is third area, a large area used for the training of soldiers. The outer gate into the castle existed at the western hillside of the mountain, and the residence of lord was next to this outer gate.

These main areas were reformed into modern style, but on the eastern slope of the mountain structures of Honjyo era still well remain. At the halfway of the slope there is a huge vertical dry moat continued over 50 meter, to obstruct the movement enemy soldiers. Besides, huge clay gate and numerous terraces still remain on the Eastern slope. Total size of Murakami castle reached 500 meter square, and Murakami castle is the second largest castle next to Kasugayama castle (Jyoetsu city) in Niigata prefecture.


Afterward of the castle


At the end of Edo era, Murakami domain fought against New government in cooperation with other Tohoku domains, and Murakami castle lost all buildings at the battle. Now the site of the castle is used as a park, and its specutaclar clay walls and stone walls shows unchanged importance of this northern fortress.


Access



20 minutes walk from JR East Uetsu-Honsen line Murakami station. 15 minutes drive from Nihonkai Tohoku Jidoshado Expressway Murakami-Sewa Onsen interchange. 30 minutes walk from hillside entrance to hilltop castle.



Related Castles


Hirabayashi Castle -Bloody citation-
Kasugayama Castle -Residence of "Dragon of Echigo"-

Pictures (click to enlarge)
















































































































































































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